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Smithsonian Folklife Festival

Korean Recipes

T’ong Paechu Kimchi (Makes 5 quarts)
Recipe by Hi Soo Shin Hepinstall
A Korean cabbage side dish

  • 5 lbs Napa cabbage
  • 2 cups coarse sea salt or kosher salt, plus additional if needed
  • 1 cup lukewarm water
Stuffing:
  • 2 tbsp sweet rice flour or all-purpose wheat flour
  • 1 cup water
  • 2 tbsp finely chopped saeu chot (salted shrimp) or myolch’i chot (salted anchovy)
  • 1 cup koch’u karu (hot red pepper powder)
  • 1 lb Korean radishes (mu), peeled and cut into 3-inch matchsticks
  • 1 hot red Korean pepper, cut diagonally into ¼-inch strips
  • 1 hot green Korean pepper, cut diagonally into ¼-inch strips
  • 2 large sweet green onions, or 4 green onions, cut diagonally into ½-inch pieces
  • 2 green onions, white and pale green part only, cut into 1 ½-inch pieces
  • 4 cloves garlic, grated
  • 6 walnut halves, finely chopped
  • 2 oz fresh ginger, grated
  • 1 Korean pear, peeled and grated
  • 1 Granny Smith apple, peeled and grated
  • 2 tbsp freshly squeezed lemon juice
  • 4 oz mustard greens, cut into l½ inch pieces (optional)

Wash the cabbage once and drain. Remove the tough outer leaves and reserve for later use. Trim off the very bottom of the cabbage, leaving enough of the root end intact to hold the cabbage together. Hold the root end up with one hand and, with a sharp knife, slice the cabbage lengthwise halfway down. With both hands, split the cabbage into halves. (In this way, the halves will divide cleanly.) If the cabbage is large, the halves can be sliced lengthwise into quarters. Wash once more, but do not drain.

Place the cabbage pieces and any leaves that have separated from them in a large (at least 6-quart capacity) nonreactive bowl, arranging them in one layer with cut sides up. Sprinkle 1 cup sea salt between the leaves and on top. Dissolve the remaining 1 cup salt into 1 cup lukewarm water, and sprinkle evenly over the cabbage. Let sit for 3 to 4 hours, shifting the cabbage every hour for even salting. As water is drawn out of the cabbage, the salt water will eventually cover all the pieces completely. During the last hour, test every 15 minutes: the cabbage should have the consistency of a crunchy dill pickle. Rinse several times and drain on a colander. Set aside. Discard the salt water and reuse the bowl for stuffing.

To make the stuffing, in a small saucepan, dissolve the sweet rice flour in 1 cup water. Bring to a boil and decrease the heat to medium low. Gently cook for 2 minutes, until it becomes a paste, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon. Let cool. In the large bowl, combine the sweet rice paste, saeu chot, and koch’u karu. Mix well into a bright, deep red paste. Add all the remaining ingredients and mix into a tomato-sauce-like consistency.

Wearing rubber gloves, place one cabbage piece in the bowl with the stuffing. Starting with the outer leaves and working in, insert the stuffing between the leaves, smearing it generously on each leaf. Tightly press the leaves together to create a bundle, and transfer it into a sterilized 5-quart jar with a screw-top lid. Repeat with the remaining cabbage pieces. Press down firmly on the bundles to pack well and remove trapped air bubbles. Use the reserved outer leaves and loose individual leaves to wipe up the remaining stuffing at the bottom and sides of the bowl; spread these leaves to cover the kimchi. Add a little salt water to the bowl to mix with the remaining bits and pieces of stuffing, and pour over the kimchi. Pack in well. All must be immersed in liquid (add more water if needed, but be sure to leave at least 2 inches of space at the top of the jar).

Close the jar lid tight and double wrap in plastic bags. Secure the neck of the jar with rubber bands to keep the kimchi fresh. Set aside at room temperature overnight. The next day, ladle some of the juice out of the jar, taste, and adjust the saltiness by adding either salt or sugar to the kimchi. Let mature at room temperature for 2–3 days more, then transfer to the refrigerator to stop the fermentation. The kimchi will stay fresh for 1 month or more but will gradually become more sour.

Note
Salting secret: When adjusting the final saltiness, be sure to use salt water to prevent the kimchi from becoming mushy.

Adapted from Hi Soo Shin Hepinstall, Growing Up in a Korean Kitchen: A Cookbook (Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 2001).



Kkagdugi (Cubed Radish Kimchi) (Makes 4 quarts)
Recipe by Hi Soo Shin Hepinstall

  • 2 lbs Napa cabbage heart
  • 4 lbs Korean radishes, peeled and cut into 1-inch cubes
  • 1 tbsp fine sea salt
  • 5 tbsp koch’u karu (Korean red hot pepper powder)
  • 2 tbsp sweet rice flour or all-purpose wheat flour
  • 2 tbsp saeu chot (salted shrimp), finely chopped
  • 5 green onions, white and pale green part only, cut into 1-inch pieces
  • 2 oz mustard greens, cut into 1-inch pieces
  • 6 cloves garlic, peeled and grated
  • 3 walnut halves, coarsely chopped
  • 2 oz fresh ginger, skinned and grated
  • 4 tbsp lemon juice, freshly squeezed
  • ½ cup sugar, or to taste
  • 1 Korean pear, peeled and grated
  • 2 oz Korean watercress (substitute parsley)

This kimchi is a breeze to make. All you need is fresh ingredients. The name kkagdugi comes from the sound of radishes being cut into cubes, "kkagdug, kkagdug." This kimchi goes well with komtang, sollongtang and also kyesamtang.

Cut the cabbage hearts into 1 by 1½ inch pieces. Reserve a few whole cabbage leaves for other uses. Place the cabbage hearts and radishes in a large bowl, sprinkle with salt, and let sit for about 15 minutes. Toss well with 3 tbsp of koch’u karu.

In a small saucepan, dissolve the sweet rice flour into 1 cup water. Bring to a boil and decrease the heat to medium-low. Gently cook for 2 minutes, until it becomes a white paste, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon. Let cool. Add the remaining 2 tbsp koch’u karu and saeu chot and stir well. Add to the cabbage mixture and mix well. Add the remaining ingredients and toss well. Transfer into a sterilized 4-quart jar with a screw-top lid. Use the reserved cabbage leaves to wipe up the remaining spices in the bowl; spread these leaves to cover the kimchi. Add a little water to the bowl to mix with the leftover spices and pour over the kimchi. Press down firmly on the kimchi to pack well and remove trapped air bubbles. Make sure that all the kimchi is immersed in liquid (but be sure to have at least 2 inches of head space at the top of the jar).

Close the lid tight and double wrap in plastic bags. Let mature at room temperature for 2–3 days, then transfer to the refrigerator to stop fermentation. The kimchi will stay fresh for 1 month or more.

Adapted from Hi Soo Shin Hepinstall, Growing Up in a Korean Kitchen: A Cookbook (Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 2001).



Oi Sobaegi (Stuffed Cucumber Kimchi)
Recipe by Hi Soo Shin Hepinstall

  • 2 lb oi (seedless soft-skinned cucumbers) 1½ tbsp sea salt or kosher salt
Stuffing:
  • 4 oz Korean radishes, peeled and shredded into 1½-inch matchsticks
  • 1 Korean or Asian pear, peeled and grated
  • 6 oz Korean chives, snipped into 1½-inch pieces
  • 1 tbsp saeu chot (salted shrimp), finely chopped
  • 2 tbsp koch’u karu (Korean hot red pepper powder)
  • 2 cloves garlic, skinned and grated
  • 1 tbsp toasted sesame seeds
  • 4 walnut halves, finely chopped
  • 1 tbsp sugar
  • 2 tbsp lemon juice, freshly squeezed
  • 1 tbsp sil kochu (Korean hot red pepper threads)
  • 1 oz fresh ginger, skinned and grated
  • 1 tbsp sil kochu (Korean hot red pepper threads), for garnish

Trim the ends off the cucumbers and cut into 2-inch pieces. Stand on the cut side up and carefully make a crisscross cut 2/3 way down. In a large bowl, arrange the cucumbers upright in one layer, sliced side up. Sprinkle the sea salt evenly over the cucumbers and let stand for about 30 minutes. Pat dry, being careful not to break apart the pieces. Set aside. In another bowl, combine all the ingredients for the stuffing and toss well. Carefully stuff the mixture into each cucumber slit. Pack the cucumbers in two or three layers, stuffed side up, in a sterilized 3-quart jar with a screw-top lid. Add a little water to the bowl to mix with the remaining bits and pieces of the stuffing and pour over the kimchi.

Close the jar lid tight and double wrap in plastic bags. Let mature at room temperature for 2–3 days, then store in the refrigerator. They stay fresh for at least a week or more. Oi sobaegi kimchi may also be eaten fresh, before fermentation. Garnish with si kochu and serve.

Adapted from Hi Soo Shin Hepinstall, Growing Up in a Korean Kitchen: A Cookbook (Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 2001).



Kimchi Ch’un (Pancakes Made with Kimchi)
Recipe by Hi Soo Shin Hepinstall

  • 1 cup whole cabbage kimchi, stem part, firmly packed
  • 2 tbsp sesame oil
  • 1 egg, lightly beaten
  • 1½ cups ice cold water
  • 2 tbsp sweet-rice flour
  • 1½ cup all-purpose flour
  • 3 large sweet green onions, white and pale green part only, finely minced
  • ½ cup scallops, chopped
  • 5 tbsp olive oil for cooking

Wearing rubber gloves, shake off the stuffing from the kimchi and wrap in a paper towel. Lightly squeeze out most of the liquid and chop into fine dices. In a medium mixing bowl, add kimchi and sesame oil. Mix well. Then, add egg, ice water, flour, and green onions and scallops. Mix all lightly with a pair of chopsticks. Set aside.

In a large cast-iron or nonstick skillet, heat 1 tbsp olive oil over high heat until very hot. Drop one-third of the kimchi batter in the skillet to make one large thin pancake. Cook for about 2 minutes, or until the edges turn brown and crispy. Flip it over, add ½ tbsp olive oil around the pancake, and cook for 1 minute, flattening and shaping it with a spatula. Flip again and cook for ½ minute, to restore crispiness. Transfer the finished pancake to a tray. Repeat with the remaining oil and batter, making 3 pancakes, each about 8 inches in diameter. Transfer the pancakes to a cutting board and, with a sharp knife, slice into wedges or squares. Serve with Korean Allspice dipping Sauce.

Adapted from Hi Soo Shin Hepinstall, Growing Up in a Korean Kitchen: A Cookbook (Berkeley: Ten Speed Press, 2001).



Pork Bulgogi over Rice
Recipe by Soyun Shim

  • 1 lb pork blade, sliced very thin—like ham
  • 1 tbsp garlic, minced
  • 4 tbsp soy sauce
  • 2 tbsp sugar
  • 1 tsp ginger, crushed
  • 3 tbsp red pepper paste
  • 1 tbsp cooking wine
  • 2 tbsp sesame oil
  • 1 onion
  • 2 cups cooked rice, short grain

Mix pork with all ingredients (except onion) and let sit about 20–30 minutes. Stir-fry mixture with the onion. Serve hot over rice.



Click to enlarge

Hi Soo Shin Hepinstall

Soyun Shim