Skip to main content
“Calligraphy is poetry without the words, painting without the color. Developed alongside the Chinese written language, it has practical meaning and artistic value.” —Yang Guangxin, calligrapher

Calligraphy—the art of writing—is valued for its beauty and as a means of self-cultivation. In China, calligraphy was historically regarded as a necessary skill for scholar officials; today it is incorporated into private and public celebrations, practiced as recreation, and displayed in homes and temples. Calligraphy is taught through associations, master-apprentice instruction, and in schools and supported by other craft traditions, including brush making, inkstone carving, and papermaking.


Yang Guangxin 杨广馨 is a calligrapher and director of the Art Center at the Beijing Institute of Education Sciences. He is currently a member of the council of the China Calligraphers’ Association and vice chairman of the Beijing Calligraphers’ Association. He edited the Art and Calligraphy Textbook for Beijing Elementary and Middle Schools and is the author of General Knowledge of Calligraphy, as well as many calligraphy copybooks.

From the Festival

China is the world’s most populous country and second biggest economy. Its rates of industrialization and urbanization are unprecedented. The largest rural-to-urban migration in human history is underway as people move from the countryside to seek work in China’s expanding cities. People face both new opportunities and daunting challenges as they adapt to shifting circumstances and try to reconcile the dynamics of development with cultural and ecological sustainability.

The 2014 Festival program highlighted REUNION and BALANCE, traditional principles that are of greater value than ever in China. Reunions animate and sustain tradition. And as people are increasingly separated from one another by the demands of work and education, they find ways to reaffirm ties to community and cultural heritage both in their daily lives and for special occasions. A traditional Chinese perspective posits that all things - everything from one’s health to a community’s welfare - depends on a balance of internal and external forces. In China today, people are navigating the transformations that emerge from modernization and from frictions between work and leisure, past and present, development and conservation, and global, national, and local traditions.

More than a hundred culture bearers from China participated in the program. Representing 15 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities, as well as some of the largest and smallest of the 56 officially recognized ethnicities, they provided a window into the country’s diversity. They demonstrated how people sustain a rich range of traditions even as communities are disrupted by migration, natural disaster, and the pressures of contemporary life. At the Festival, they demonstrated the artistry with which balance and reunion are realized within and across communities, and between humans and their environment - both through the changing seasons and in a changing world.

James Deutsch and Sojin Kim were Program Curators; Jing Li was Program Coordinator; and Joan Hua was Program Assistant. Advisors and consultants included: Joan Auchter, Rachel Cooper, Robert Daly, Melanie Fernandez, Yong Han, Bill lvey, Joanna C. Lee, Jing Li, Jun Liu, Adriel Luis, Shengde Ma, Jean Miao, Rodrigo Fritz, May Sun, Sue Tuohy, Jingqiang Wang, Sally Van de Water, Lihui Yang, Yuan Yang, Nora Yeh, Juwen Zhang, Zhizong Zhu, and Nina Zolt.

The program was produced by the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage in padnership with the China lnternational Culture Association, working with the China Arts and Entertainment Group. Additional support was provided by the West Kowloon Cultural District, Hong Kong SAR; and the Guizhou Provincial Department of Culture.

Support the Center and our important work, including the Folklife Festival, Folkways Recordings, exhibitions, films, and educational materials.